Flashing problems can be fiddly to troubleshoot. Try the suggestions here if you’re having problems:
Bootloader Won’t Respond
If you see errors like “Failed to connect” then your chip is probably not entering the bootloader properly:
Check you are passing the correct serial port on the command line.
Check you have permissions to access the serial port, and other software (such as modem-manager on Linux) is not trying to interact with it. A common pitfall is leaving a serial terminal accessing this port open in another window and forgetting about it.
Check the chip is receiving 3.3V from a stable power source (see Insufficient Power for more details.)
Check that all pins are connected as described in Boot Mode Selection. Check the voltages at each pin with a multimeter, “high” pins should be close to 3.3V and “low” pins should be close to 0V.
If you have connected other devices to GPIO pins, try removing them and see if esptool starts working.
Try using a slower baud rate (
-b 9600is a very slow value that you can use to verify it’s not a baud rate problem).
Writing to Flash Fails Part Way Through
If flashing fails with random errors part way through, retry with a lower baud rate.
Power stability problems may also cause this (see Insufficient Power.)
Writing to Flash Succeeds but Program Doesn’t Run
If esptool can flash your module with
write_flash but your program doesn’t run, check the following:
Wrong Flash Mode
Some devices only support the
dio flash mode. Writing to flash with
qio mode will succeed but the chip can’t read the flash back to run - so nothing happens on boot. Try passing the
-fm dio option to
See the SPI Flash Modes page for a full description of the flash modes and how to determine which ones are supported on your device.
The 3.3V power supply for the ESP chip has to supply large amounts of current (up to 70mA continuous, 200-300mA peak, might be slightly higher). You also need sufficient capacitance on the power circuit to meet large spikes of power demand.
If you’re using a pre-made development board or module then the built-in power regulator & capacitors are usually good enough, provided the input power supply is adequate.
This is not true for some very simple pin breakout modules - similar to this. These breakouts do not integrate enough capacitance to work reliably without additional components. Surface mount OEM modules like ESP-WROOM02 and ESP-WROOM32 require an external bulk capacitor on the PCB to be reliable, consult the module datasheet.
Power Supply Rating
It is possible to have a power supply that supplies enough current for the serial bootloader stage with esptool, but not enough for normal firmware operation. You may see the 3.3V VCC voltage droop down if you measure it with a multimeter, but you can have problems even if this isn’t happening.
Try swapping in a 3.3V supply with a higher current rating, add capacitors to the power line, and/or shorten any 3.3V power wires.
The 3.3V output from FTDI FT232R chips/adapters or Arduino boards do not supply sufficient current to power an ESP chip (it may seem to work sometimes, but it won’t work reliably). Other USB TTL/serial adapters may also be marginal.
The ESP8266 SDK uses a small firmware bootloader program. The hardware bootloader in ROM loads this firmware bootloader from flash, and then it runs the program.
On ESP8266, firmware bootloader image (with a filename like
boot_v1.x.bin) has to be flashed at offset 0x0. If the firmware bootloader is missing then the ESP8266 will not boot.
Refer to ESP8266 SDK documentation for details regarding which binaries need to be flashed at which offsets.
SPI Pins Which Must Be Disconnected
Compared to the ROM bootloader that esptool talks to, a running firmware uses more of the chip’s pins to access the SPI flash.
If you set “Quad I/O” mode (
-fm qio, the esptool default) then GPIOs 7, 8, 9 & 10 are used for reading the SPI flash and must be otherwise disconnected.
If you set “Dual I/O” mode (
-fm dio) then GPIOs 7 & 8 are used for reading the SPI flash and must be otherwise disconnected.
Try disconnecting anything from those pins (and/or swap to Dual I/O mode if you were previously using Quad I/O mode but want to attach things to GPIOs 9 & 10). Note that if GPIOs 9 & 10 are also connected to input pins on the SPI flash chip, they may still be unsuitable for use as general purpose I/O.
In addition to these pins, GPIOs 6 & 11 are also used to access the SPI flash (in all modes). However flashing will usually fail completely if these pins are connected incorrectly.
Early Stage Crash
Use any of serial terminal programs to view the boot log. (ESP8266 baud rate is 74880bps). See if the program is crashing during early startup or outputting an error message.
Serial Terminal Programs
There are many serial terminal programs suitable for debugging & serial interaction. The pyserial module (which is required for
esptool) includes one such command line terminal program - miniterm.py. For more details see the related pyserial documentation or run
For exact serial port configuration values, see Serial Port Settings.
Note that not every serial program supports the unusual ESP8266 74880bps “boot log” baud rate. Support is especially sparse on Linux. miniterm.py supports this baud rate on all platforms.
Tracing Esptool Interactions
esptool.py --trace will dump all serial interactions to the standard output (this is a lot of output). This can be helpful when debugging issues with the serial connection, or when providing information for bug reports.
See the related Advanced Topics page for more information.
This is a non-exhaustive list of the most common esptool errors together with explanations of possible causes and fixes. Before reading any error-specific advice, it is highly recommended to go through all of the Troubleshooting section first.
No serial data received.
Esptool didn’t receive any byte of data or a successful slip packet. This error usually implies some kind of a hardware issue. This may be because the hardware is not working properly at all, the RX/TX serial lines are not connected, or because there is some problem with resetting into the download mode.
There is a known issue regarding ESP8266 with the CH340 USB-to-serial converter (this includes NodeMCU and Wemos D1 mini devkits) on Linux. The regression affects only certain kernel versions. See #653 for details.
On ESP8266, this error might be the result of a wrong boot mode. If your devkit supports this, try resetting into the download mode manually. See Manual Bootloader for instructions.
Invalid head of packet (0xXX): Possible serial noise or corruption.
This error is usually caused by one of the following reasons:
The chip is not resetting into the download mode. If the chip runs in a normal boot from flash mode, the ROM writes a log to UART when booting (see ESP8266 boot log for more information). This data in the serial buffer result in “Invalid head of packet”. You can verify this by connecting with any of Serial Terminal Programs and seeing what data is the chip sending. If this turns out to be true, check the autoreset circuitry (if your board has it), or try resetting into the download mode manually. See Manual Bootloader for instructions.
Using bad quality USB cable.
Sometimes breadboards can short the SPI flash pins on the board and cause this kind of problem. Try removing your development board from the breadboard.
The chip might be browning out during flashing. FTDI chips’ internal 3.3V regulator is not enough to power an ESP, see Insufficient Power.
Other things to try:
Try to sync and communicate at a much lower baud rate, e.g.
esptool.py --baud 9600 ....
Try tracing the interactions running
esptool.py --trace ...and see if anything is received back at all.
Try skipping chip autodetection by specifying the chip type, run
esptool.py --chip ESP8266 ....
If none of the above mentioned fixes help and your problem persists, please open a new issue.