SD/SDIO/MMC Driver

[中文]

Overview

The SD/SDIO/MMC driver currently supports SD memory, SDIO cards, and eMMC chips. This is a protocol level driver built on top of SDMMC and SD SPI host drivers.

SDMMC and SD SPI host drivers (driver/include/driver/sdmmc_host.h and driver/include/driver/sdspi_host.h) provide API functions for:

  • Sending commands to slave devices

  • Sending and receiving data

  • Handling error conditions within the bus

For functions used to initialize and configure:

Application Example

An example which combines the SDMMC driver with the FATFS library is provided in the storage/sd_card directory of ESP-IDF examples. This example initializes the card, then writes and reads data from it using POSIX and C library APIs. See README.md file in the example directory for more information.

Combo (memory + IO) cards

The driver does not support SD combo cards. Combo cards are treated as IO cards.

Thread safety

Most applications need to use the protocol layer only in one task. For this reason, the protocol layer does not implement any kind of locking on the sdmmc_card_t structure, or when accessing SDMMC or SD SPI host drivers. Such locking is usually implemented on a higher layer, e.g., in the filesystem driver.

API Reference

Functions

esp_err_t sdmmc_card_init(const sdmmc_host_t *host, sdmmc_card_t *out_card)

Probe and initialize SD/MMC card using given host

Note

Only SD cards (SDSC and SDHC/SDXC) are supported now. Support for MMC/eMMC cards will be added later.

Parameters
  • host – pointer to structure defining host controller

  • out_card – pointer to structure which will receive information about the card when the function completes

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

void sdmmc_card_print_info(FILE *stream, const sdmmc_card_t *card)

Print information about the card to a stream.

Parameters
  • stream – stream obtained using fopen or fdopen

  • card – card information structure initialized using sdmmc_card_init

esp_err_t sdmmc_get_status(sdmmc_card_t *card)

Get status of SD/MMC card

Parameters

card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_write_sectors(sdmmc_card_t *card, const void *src, size_t start_sector, size_t sector_count)

Write given number of sectors to SD/MMC card

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • src – pointer to data buffer to read data from; data size must be equal to sector_count * card->csd.sector_size

  • start_sector – sector where to start writing

  • sector_count – number of sectors to write

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_read_sectors(sdmmc_card_t *card, void *dst, size_t start_sector, size_t sector_count)

Read given number of sectors from the SD/MMC card

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • dst – pointer to data buffer to write into; buffer size must be at least sector_count * card->csd.sector_size

  • start_sector – sector where to start reading

  • sector_count – number of sectors to read

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_erase_sectors(sdmmc_card_t *card, size_t start_sector, size_t sector_count, sdmmc_erase_arg_t arg)

Erase given number of sectors from the SD/MMC card

Note

When sdmmc_erase_sectors used with cards in SDSPI mode, it was observed that card requires re-init after erase operation.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • start_sector – sector where to start erase

  • sector_count – number of sectors to erase

  • arg – erase command (CMD38) argument

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_can_discard(sdmmc_card_t *card)

Check if SD/MMC card supports discard

Parameters

card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

Returns

  • ESP_OK if supported by the card/device

  • ESP_FAIL if not supported by the card/device

esp_err_t sdmmc_can_trim(sdmmc_card_t *card)

Check if SD/MMC card supports trim

Parameters

card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

Returns

  • ESP_OK if supported by the card/device

  • ESP_FAIL if not supported by the card/device

esp_err_t sdmmc_mmc_can_sanitize(sdmmc_card_t *card)

Check if SD/MMC card supports sanitize

Parameters

card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

Returns

  • ESP_OK if supported by the card/device

  • ESP_FAIL if not supported by the card/device

esp_err_t sdmmc_mmc_sanitize(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t timeout_ms)

Sanitize the data that was unmapped by a Discard command

Note

Discard command has to precede sanitize operation. To discard, use MMC_DICARD_ARG with sdmmc_erase_sectors argument

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • timeout_ms – timeout value in milliseconds required to sanitize the selected range of sectors.

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_full_erase(sdmmc_card_t *card)

Erase complete SD/MMC card

Parameters

card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_read_byte(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t function, uint32_t reg, uint8_t *out_byte)

Read one byte from an SDIO card using IO_RW_DIRECT (CMD52)

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • function – IO function number

  • reg – byte address within IO function

  • out_byte[out] output, receives the value read from the card

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_write_byte(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t function, uint32_t reg, uint8_t in_byte, uint8_t *out_byte)

Write one byte to an SDIO card using IO_RW_DIRECT (CMD52)

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • function – IO function number

  • reg – byte address within IO function

  • in_byte – value to be written

  • out_byte[out] if not NULL, receives new byte value read from the card (read-after-write).

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_read_bytes(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t function, uint32_t addr, void *dst, size_t size)

Read multiple bytes from an SDIO card using IO_RW_EXTENDED (CMD53)

This function performs read operation using CMD53 in byte mode. For block mode, see sdmmc_io_read_blocks.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • function – IO function number

  • addr – byte address within IO function where reading starts

  • dst – buffer which receives the data read from card

  • size – number of bytes to read

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_SIZE if size exceeds 512 bytes

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_write_bytes(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t function, uint32_t addr, const void *src, size_t size)

Write multiple bytes to an SDIO card using IO_RW_EXTENDED (CMD53)

This function performs write operation using CMD53 in byte mode. For block mode, see sdmmc_io_write_blocks.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • function – IO function number

  • addr – byte address within IO function where writing starts

  • src – data to be written

  • size – number of bytes to write

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_SIZE if size exceeds 512 bytes

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_read_blocks(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t function, uint32_t addr, void *dst, size_t size)

Read blocks of data from an SDIO card using IO_RW_EXTENDED (CMD53)

This function performs read operation using CMD53 in block mode. For byte mode, see sdmmc_io_read_bytes.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • function – IO function number

  • addr – byte address within IO function where writing starts

  • dst – buffer which receives the data read from card

  • size – number of bytes to read, must be divisible by the card block size.

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_SIZE if size is not divisible by 512 bytes

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_write_blocks(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint32_t function, uint32_t addr, const void *src, size_t size)

Write blocks of data to an SDIO card using IO_RW_EXTENDED (CMD53)

This function performs write operation using CMD53 in block mode. For byte mode, see sdmmc_io_write_bytes.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • function – IO function number

  • addr – byte address within IO function where writing starts

  • src – data to be written

  • size – number of bytes to read, must be divisible by the card block size.

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_SIZE if size is not divisible by 512 bytes

  • One of the error codes from SDMMC host controller

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_enable_int(sdmmc_card_t *card)

Enable SDIO interrupt in the SDMMC host

Parameters

card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

Returns

  • ESP_OK on success

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED if the host controller does not support IO interrupts

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_wait_int(sdmmc_card_t *card, TickType_t timeout_ticks)

Block until an SDIO interrupt is received

Slave uses D1 line to signal interrupt condition to the host. This function can be used to wait for the interrupt.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • timeout_ticks – time to wait for the interrupt, in RTOS ticks

Returns

  • ESP_OK if the interrupt is received

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED if the host controller does not support IO interrupts

  • ESP_ERR_TIMEOUT if the interrupt does not happen in timeout_ticks

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_get_cis_data(sdmmc_card_t *card, uint8_t *out_buffer, size_t buffer_size, size_t *inout_cis_size)

Get the data of CIS region of an SDIO card.

You may provide a buffer not sufficient to store all the CIS data. In this case, this function stores as much data into your buffer as possible. Also, this function will try to get and return the size required for you.

Parameters
  • card – pointer to card information structure previously initialized using sdmmc_card_init

  • out_buffer – Output buffer of the CIS data

  • buffer_size – Size of the buffer.

  • inout_cis_size – Mandatory, pointer to a size, input and output.

    • input: Limitation of maximum searching range, should be 0 or larger than buffer_size. The function searches for CIS_CODE_END until this range. Set to 0 to search infinitely.

    • output: The size required to store all the CIS data, if CIS_CODE_END is found.

Returns

  • ESP_OK: on success

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_RESPONSE: if the card does not (correctly) support CIS.

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_SIZE: CIS_CODE_END found, but buffer_size is less than required size, which is stored in the inout_cis_size then.

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_FOUND: if the CIS_CODE_END not found. Increase input value of inout_cis_size or set it to 0, if you still want to search for the end; output value of inout_cis_size is invalid in this case.

  • and other error code return from sdmmc_io_read_bytes

esp_err_t sdmmc_io_print_cis_info(uint8_t *buffer, size_t buffer_size, FILE *fp)

Parse and print the CIS information of an SDIO card.

Note

Not all the CIS codes and all kinds of tuples are supported. If you see some unresolved code, you can add the parsing of these code in sdmmc_io.c and contribute to the IDF through the Github repository.

         using sdmmc_card_init

Parameters
  • buffer – Buffer to parse

  • buffer_size – Size of the buffer.

  • fp – File pointer to print to, set to NULL to print to stdout.

Returns

  • ESP_OK: on success

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_SUPPORTED: if the value from the card is not supported to be parsed.

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_SIZE: if the CIS size fields are not correct.

Structures

struct sdmmc_csd_t

Decoded values from SD card Card Specific Data register

Public Members

int csd_ver

CSD structure format

int mmc_ver

MMC version (for CID format)

int capacity

total number of sectors

int sector_size

sector size in bytes

int read_block_len

block length for reads

int card_command_class

Card Command Class for SD

int tr_speed

Max transfer speed

struct sdmmc_cid_t

Decoded values from SD card Card IDentification register

Public Members

int mfg_id

manufacturer identification number

int oem_id

OEM/product identification number

char name[8]

product name (MMC v1 has the longest)

int revision

product revision

int serial

product serial number

int date

manufacturing date

struct sdmmc_scr_t

Decoded values from SD Configuration Register Note: When new member is added, update reserved bits accordingly

Public Members

uint32_t sd_spec

SD Physical layer specification version, reported by card

uint32_t erase_mem_state

data state on card after erase whether 0 or 1 (card vendor dependent)

uint32_t bus_width

bus widths supported by card: BIT(0) — 1-bit bus, BIT(2) — 4-bit bus

uint32_t reserved

reserved for future expansion

uint32_t rsvd_mnf

reserved for manufacturer usage

struct sdmmc_ssr_t

Decoded values from SD Status Register Note: When new member is added, update reserved bits accordingly

Public Members

uint32_t alloc_unit_kb

Allocation unit of the card, in multiples of kB (1024 bytes)

uint32_t erase_size_au

Erase size for the purpose of timeout calculation, in multiples of allocation unit

uint32_t cur_bus_width

SD current bus width

uint32_t discard_support

SD discard feature support

uint32_t fule_support

SD FULE (Full User Area Logical Erase) feature support

uint32_t erase_timeout

Timeout (in seconds) for erase of a single allocation unit

uint32_t erase_offset

Constant timeout offset (in seconds) for any erase operation

uint32_t reserved

reserved for future expansion

struct sdmmc_ext_csd_t

Decoded values of Extended Card Specific Data

Public Members

uint8_t rev

Extended CSD Revision

uint8_t power_class

Power class used by the card

uint8_t erase_mem_state

data state on card after erase whether 0 or 1 (card vendor dependent)

uint8_t sec_feature

secure data management features supported by the card

struct sdmmc_switch_func_rsp_t

SD SWITCH_FUNC response buffer

Public Members

uint32_t data[512 / 8 / sizeof(uint32_t)]

response data

struct sdmmc_command_t

SD/MMC command information

Public Members

uint32_t opcode

SD or MMC command index

uint32_t arg

SD/MMC command argument

sdmmc_response_t response

response buffer

void *data

buffer to send or read into

size_t datalen

length of data buffer

size_t blklen

block length

int flags

see below

esp_err_t error

error returned from transfer

uint32_t timeout_ms

response timeout, in milliseconds

struct sdmmc_host_t

SD/MMC Host description

This structure defines properties of SD/MMC host and functions of SD/MMC host which can be used by upper layers.

Public Members

uint32_t flags

flags defining host properties

int slot

slot number, to be passed to host functions

int max_freq_khz

max frequency supported by the host

float io_voltage

I/O voltage used by the controller (voltage switching is not supported)

esp_err_t (*init)(void)

Host function to initialize the driver

esp_err_t (*set_bus_width)(int slot, size_t width)

host function to set bus width

size_t (*get_bus_width)(int slot)

host function to get bus width

esp_err_t (*set_bus_ddr_mode)(int slot, bool ddr_enable)

host function to set DDR mode

esp_err_t (*set_card_clk)(int slot, uint32_t freq_khz)

host function to set card clock frequency

esp_err_t (*do_transaction)(int slot, sdmmc_command_t *cmdinfo)

host function to do a transaction

esp_err_t (*deinit)(void)

host function to deinitialize the driver

esp_err_t (*deinit_p)(int slot)

host function to deinitialize the driver, called with the slot

esp_err_t (*io_int_enable)(int slot)

Host function to enable SDIO interrupt line

esp_err_t (*io_int_wait)(int slot, TickType_t timeout_ticks)

Host function to wait for SDIO interrupt line to be active

int command_timeout_ms

timeout, in milliseconds, of a single command. Set to 0 to use the default value.

struct sdmmc_card_t

SD/MMC card information structure

Public Members

sdmmc_host_t host

Host with which the card is associated

uint32_t ocr

OCR (Operation Conditions Register) value

sdmmc_cid_t cid

decoded CID (Card IDentification) register value

sdmmc_response_t raw_cid

raw CID of MMC card to be decoded after the CSD is fetched in the data transfer mode

sdmmc_csd_t csd

decoded CSD (Card-Specific Data) register value

sdmmc_scr_t scr

decoded SCR (SD card Configuration Register) value

sdmmc_ssr_t ssr

decoded SSR (SD Status Register) value

sdmmc_ext_csd_t ext_csd

decoded EXT_CSD (Extended Card Specific Data) register value

uint16_t rca

RCA (Relative Card Address)

uint16_t max_freq_khz

Maximum frequency, in kHz, supported by the card

uint32_t is_mem

Bit indicates if the card is a memory card

uint32_t is_sdio

Bit indicates if the card is an IO card

uint32_t is_mmc

Bit indicates if the card is MMC

uint32_t num_io_functions

If is_sdio is 1, contains the number of IO functions on the card

uint32_t log_bus_width

log2(bus width supported by card)

uint32_t is_ddr

Card supports DDR mode

uint32_t reserved

Reserved for future expansion

Macros

SDMMC_HOST_FLAG_1BIT

host supports 1-line SD and MMC protocol

SDMMC_HOST_FLAG_4BIT

host supports 4-line SD and MMC protocol

SDMMC_HOST_FLAG_8BIT

host supports 8-line MMC protocol

SDMMC_HOST_FLAG_SPI

host supports SPI protocol

SDMMC_HOST_FLAG_DDR

host supports DDR mode for SD/MMC

SDMMC_HOST_FLAG_DEINIT_ARG

host deinit function called with the slot argument

SDMMC_FREQ_DEFAULT

SD/MMC Default speed (limited by clock divider)

SDMMC_FREQ_HIGHSPEED

SD High speed (limited by clock divider)

SDMMC_FREQ_PROBING

SD/MMC probing speed

SDMMC_FREQ_52M

MMC 52MHz speed

SDMMC_FREQ_26M

MMC 26MHz speed

Type Definitions

typedef uint32_t sdmmc_response_t[4]

SD/MMC command response buffer

Enumerations

enum sdmmc_erase_arg_t

SD/MMC erase command(38) arguments SD: ERASE: Erase the write blocks, physical/hard erase.

DISCARD: Card may deallocate the discarded blocks partially or completely. After discard operation the previously written data may be partially or fully read by the host depending on card implementation.

MMC: ERASE: Does TRIM, applies erase operation to write blocks instead of Erase Group.

DISCARD: The Discard function allows the host to identify data that is no longer required so that the device can erase the data if necessary during background erase events. Applies to write blocks instead of Erase Group After discard operation, the original data may be remained partially or fully accessible to the host dependent on device.

Values:

enumerator SDMMC_ERASE_ARG

Erase operation on SD, Trim operation on MMC

enumerator SDMMC_DISCARD_ARG

Discard operation for SD/MMC