专用 GPIO

[English]

概述

专用 GPIO 专为 CPU 与 GPIO 矩阵和 IO MUX 交互而设计。任何配置为“专用”的 GPIO 都可以通过 CPU 指令直接访问,从而轻松提高 GPIO 翻转速度,方便用户以 bit-banging 的方式模拟串行/并行接口。通过 CPU 指令的方式控制 GPIO 的软件开销非常小,因此能够胜任一些特殊场合,比如通过示波器观测 “GPIO 翻转信号” 来间接测量某些性能指标。

创建/销毁 GPIO 捆绑包

GPIO 捆绑包是一组 GPIO,该组 GPIO 可以在一个 CPU 周期内同时操作。一个包能够包含 GPIO 的最大数量受每个 CPU 的限制。另外,GPIO 捆绑包与派生它的 CPU 有很强的相关性。 注意,任何对 GPIO 捆绑包操作的任务都必须运行在 GPIO 捆绑包所属的 CPU 内核。 同理,只有那些安装在同一个 CPU 内核上的 ISR 才允许对该 GPIO 捆绑包进行操作。

备注

专用 GPIO 更像是 CPU 外设,因此与 CPU 内核关系密切。强烈建议在 pin-to-core 任务中安装和操作 GPIO 捆绑包。例如,如果 GPIOA 连接到了 CPU0,而专用的 GPIO 指令却是从 CPU1 发出的,那么就无法控制 GPIOA。

安装 GPIO 捆绑包需要调用 dedic_gpio_new_bundle() 来分配软件资源并将专用通道连接到用户选择的 GPIO。GPIO 捆绑包的配置在 dedic_gpio_bundle_config_t 结构体中:

  • gpio_array:包含 GPIO 编号的数组。

  • array_sizegpio_array 的元素个数。

  • flags:用于控制 GPIO 捆绑包行为的标志。

    • in_enout_en 用于选择是否开启输入输出功能(这两个功能可以同时开启)。

    • in_invertout_invert 用于选择是否反转 GPIO 信号。

以下代码展示了如何安装只有输出功能的 GPIO 捆绑包:

// 配置 GPIO
const int bundleA_gpios[] = {0, 1};
gpio_config_t io_conf = {
    .mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT,
};
for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(bundleA_gpios) / sizeof(bundleA_gpios[0]); i++) {
    io_conf.pin_bit_mask = 1ULL << bundleA_gpios[i];
    gpio_config(&io_conf);
}
// 创建 bundleA,仅输出
dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundleA = NULL;
dedic_gpio_bundle_config_t bundleA_config = {
    .gpio_array = bundleA_gpios,
    .array_size = sizeof(bundleA_gpios) / sizeof(bundleA_gpios[0]),
    .flags = {
        .out_en = 1,
    },
};
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(dedic_gpio_new_bundle(&bundleA_config, &bundleA));

如需卸载 GPIO 捆绑包,可调用 dedic_gpio_del_bundle()

备注

dedic_gpio_new_bundle() 不包含任何 GPIO pad 配置(例如上拉/下拉、驱动能力、输出/输入使能)。因此,在安装专用 GPIO 捆绑包之前,您必须使用 GPIO 驱动程序 API(如 gpio_config())单独配置 GPIO。更多关于 GPIO 驱动的信息,请参考 GPIO API 参考

GPIO 捆绑包操作

操作

函数

以掩码的方式指定 GPIO 捆绑包的输出

dedic_gpio_bundle_write()

读取 GPIO 捆绑包实际输出的电平值

dedic_gpio_bundle_read_out()

读取 GPIO 捆绑包中输入的电平值

dedic_gpio_bundle_read_in()

备注

由于函数调用的开销和内部涉及的位操作,使用上述函数可能无法获得较高的 GPIO 翻转速度。用户可以尝试 通过编写汇编代码操作 GPIO 来减少开销,但应自行注意线程安全。

通过编写汇编代码操作 GPIO

高阶用户可以通过编写汇编代码或调用 CPU 低层 API 来操作 GPIO。常见步骤为:

  1. 分配一个 GPIO 捆绑包: dedic_gpio_new_bundle()

  2. 查询该包占用的掩码:dedic_gpio_get_out_mask() 和/或 dedic_gpio_get_in_mask()

  3. 调用 CPU LL apis (如 cpu_ll_write_dedic_gpio_mask) 或使用该掩码编写汇编代码

  4. 切换 IO 的最快捷方式是使用专用的“设置/清除”指令:

    • 设置 GPIO 位:set_bit_gpio_out imm[7:0]

    • 清除 GPIO 位:clr_bit_gpio_out imm[7:0]

    • 注意:立即数宽度取决于专用 GPIO 通道的数量

有关支持的专用 GPIO 指令的详细信息,请参考 ESP32-S2 技术参考手册 > IO MUX 和 GPIO 矩阵 (GPIO, IO_MUX) [PDF].

一些专用的 CPU 指令也包含在 hal/dedic_gpio_cpu_ll.h 中,作为辅助内联函数。

备注

由于自定义指令在不同目标上可能会有不同的格式,在应用程序中编写汇编代码可能会让代码难以在不同的芯片架构之间移植。

中断处理

专用 GPIO 还可以在特定输入事件时触发中断。dedic_gpio_intr_type_t 定义了所有支持的事件。

可以通过调用 dedic_gpio_bundle_set_interrupt_and_callback() 来启用和注册中断回调。dedic_gpio_isr_callback_t 定义了回调函数的原型。如果唤醒了一些高优先级任务,回调应该返回 true。

// 用户定义 ISR 回调
IRAM_ATTR bool dedic_gpio_isr_callback(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle, uint32_t index, void *args)
{
    SemaphoreHandle_t sem = (SemaphoreHandle_t)args;
    BaseType_t high_task_wakeup = pdFALSE;
    xSemaphoreGiveFromISR(sem, &high_task_wakeup);
    return high_task_wakeup == pdTRUE;
}

// 在捆绑包中的第二个 GPIO 上(即索引为 1)启用上升沿中断
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(dedic_gpio_bundle_set_interrupt_and_callback(bundle, BIT(1), DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_POS_EDGE, dedic_gpio_isr_callback, sem));

// 等待完成信号量
xSemaphoreTake(sem, portMAX_DELAY);

应用示例

基于专用 GPIO 的矩阵键盘示例:peripherals/gpio/matrix_keyboard.

API 参考

Functions

esp_err_t dedic_gpio_get_out_mask(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle, uint32_t *mask)

Get allocated channel mask.

备注

Each bundle should have at least one mask (in or/and out), based on bundle configuration.

备注

With the returned mask, user can directly invoke LL function like “dedic_gpio_cpu_ll_write_mask” or write assembly code with dedicated GPIO instructions, to get better performance on GPIO manipulation.

参数
  • bundle[in] Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

  • mask[out] Returned mask value for on specific direction (in or out)

返回

  • ESP_OK: Get channel mask successfully

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG: Get channel mask failed because of invalid argument

  • ESP_FAIL: Get channel mask failed because of other error

esp_err_t dedic_gpio_get_in_mask(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle, uint32_t *mask)
esp_err_t dedic_gpio_new_bundle(const dedic_gpio_bundle_config_t *config, dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t *ret_bundle)

Create GPIO bundle and return the handle.

备注

One has to enable at least input or output mode in “config” parameter.

参数
  • config[in] Configuration of GPIO bundle

  • ret_bundle[out] Returned handle of the new created GPIO bundle

返回

  • ESP_OK: Create GPIO bundle successfully

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG: Create GPIO bundle failed because of invalid argument

  • ESP_ERR_NO_MEM: Create GPIO bundle failed because of no capable memory

  • ESP_ERR_NOT_FOUND: Create GPIO bundle failed because of no enough continuous dedicated channels

  • ESP_FAIL: Create GPIO bundle failed because of other error

esp_err_t dedic_gpio_del_bundle(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle)

Destory GPIO bundle.

参数

bundle[in] Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

返回

  • ESP_OK: Destory GPIO bundle successfully

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG: Destory GPIO bundle failed because of invalid argument

  • ESP_FAIL: Destory GPIO bundle failed because of other error

void dedic_gpio_bundle_write(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle, uint32_t mask, uint32_t value)

Write value to GPIO bundle.

备注

The mask is seen from the view of GPIO bundle. For example, bundleA contains [GPIO10, GPIO12, GPIO17], to set GPIO17 individually, the mask should be 0x04.

备注

For performance reasons, this function doesn’t check the validity of any parameters, and is placed in IRAM.

参数
  • bundle[in] Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

  • mask[in] Mask of the GPIOs to be written in the given bundle

  • value[in] Value to write to given GPIO bundle, low bit represents low member in the bundle

uint32_t dedic_gpio_bundle_read_out(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle)

Read the value that output from the given GPIO bundle.

备注

For performance reasons, this function doesn’t check the validity of any parameters, and is placed in IRAM.

参数

bundle[in] Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

返回

Value that output from the GPIO bundle, low bit represents low member in the bundle

uint32_t dedic_gpio_bundle_read_in(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle)

Read the value that input to the given GPIO bundle.

备注

For performance reasons, this function doesn’t check the validity of any parameters, and is placed in IRAM.

参数

bundle[in] Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

返回

Value that input to the GPIO bundle, low bit represents low member in the bundle

esp_err_t dedic_gpio_bundle_set_interrupt_and_callback(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle, uint32_t mask, dedic_gpio_intr_type_t intr_type, dedic_gpio_isr_callback_t cb_isr, void *cb_args)

Set interrupt and callback function for GPIO bundle.

备注

This function is only valid for bundle with input mode enabled. See “dedic_gpio_bundle_config_t”

备注

The mask is seen from the view of GPIO Bundle. For example, bundleA contains [GPIO10, GPIO12, GPIO17], to set GPIO17 individually, the mask should be 0x04.

参数
  • bundle[in] Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

  • mask[in] Mask of the GPIOs in the given bundle

  • intr_type[in] Interrupt type, set to DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_NONE can disable interrupt

  • cb_isr[in] Callback function, which got invoked in ISR context. A NULL pointer here will bypass the callback

  • cb_args[in] User defined argument to be passed to the callback function

返回

  • ESP_OK: Set GPIO interrupt and callback function successfully

  • ESP_ERR_INVALID_ARG: Set GPIO interrupt and callback function failed because of invalid argument

  • ESP_FAIL: Set GPIO interrupt and callback function failed because of other error

Structures

struct dedic_gpio_bundle_config_t

Type of Dedicated GPIO bundle configuration.

Public Members

const int *gpio_array

Array of GPIO numbers, gpio_array[0] ~ gpio_array[size-1] <=> low_dedic_channel_num ~ high_dedic_channel_num

size_t array_size

Number of GPIOs in gpio_array

unsigned int in_en

Enable input

unsigned int in_invert

Invert input signal

unsigned int out_en

Enable output

unsigned int out_invert

Invert output signal

struct dedic_gpio_bundle_config_t::[anonymous] flags

Flags to control specific behaviour of GPIO bundle

Type Definitions

typedef struct dedic_gpio_bundle_t *dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t

Type of Dedicated GPIO bundle.

typedef bool (*dedic_gpio_isr_callback_t)(dedic_gpio_bundle_handle_t bundle, uint32_t index, void *args)

Type of dedicated GPIO ISR callback function.

Param bundle

Handle of GPIO bundle that returned from “dedic_gpio_new_bundle”

Param index

Index of the GPIO in its corresponding bundle (count from 0)

Param args

User defined arguments for the callback function. It’s passed through dedic_gpio_bundle_set_interrupt_and_callback

Return

If a high priority task is woken up by the callback function

Enumerations

enum dedic_gpio_intr_type_t

Supported type of dedicated GPIO interrupt.

Values:

enumerator DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_NONE

No interrupt

enumerator DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_LOW_LEVEL

Interrupt on low level

enumerator DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_HIGH_LEVEL

Interrupt on high level

enumerator DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_NEG_EDGE

Interrupt on negedge

enumerator DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_POS_EDGE

Interrupt on posedge

enumerator DEDIC_GPIO_INTR_BOTH_EDGE

Interrupt on both negedge and posedge