Programming ULP FSM coprocessor using C macros (legacy)

In addition to the existing binutils port for the ESP32-S2 ULP coprocessor, it is possible to generate programs for the ULP FSM coprocessor by embedding assembly-like macros into an ESP32-S2 application. Here is an example how this can be done:

const ulp_insn_t program[] = {
    I_MOVI(R3, 16),         // R3 <- 16
    I_LD(R0, R3, 0),        // R0 <- RTC_SLOW_MEM[R3 + 0]
    I_LD(R1, R3, 1),        // R1 <- RTC_SLOW_MEM[R3 + 1]
    I_ADDR(R2, R0, R1),     // R2 <- R0 + R1
    I_ST(R2, R3, 2),        // R2 -> RTC_SLOW_MEM[R2 + 2]
    I_HALT()
};
size_t load_addr = 0;
size_t size = sizeof(program)/sizeof(ulp_insn_t);
ulp_process_macros_and_load(load_addr, program, &size);
ulp_run(load_addr);

The program array is an array of ulp_insn_t, i.e. ULP coprocessor instructions. Each I_XXX preprocessor define translates into a single 32-bit instruction. Arguments of these preprocessor defines can be register numbers (R0 R3) and literal constants. See the API reference section at the end of this guide for descriptions of instructions and arguments they take.

Note

Because some of the instruction macros expand to inline function calls, defining such array in global scope will cause the compiler to produce an “initializer element is not constant” error. To fix this error, move the definition of instructions array into local scope.

Note

Load, store and move instructions use addresses expressed in 32-bit words. Address 0 corresponds to the first word of RTC_SLOW_MEM. This is different to how address arguments are handled in assembly code of the same instructions. See the section Note about addressing for more details for reference.

To generate branch instructions, special M_ preprocessor defines are used. M_LABEL define can be used to define a branch target. Label identifier is a 16-bit integer. M_Bxxx defines can be used to generate branch instructions with target set to a particular label.

Implementation note: these M_ preprocessor defines will be translated into two ulp_insn_t values: one is a token value which contains label number, and the other is the actual instruction. ulp_process_macros_and_load function resolves the label number to the address, modifies the branch instruction to use the correct address, and removes the the extra ulp_insn_t token which contains the label numer.

Here is an example of using labels and branches:

const ulp_insn_t program[] = {
    I_MOVI(R0, 34),         // R0 <- 34
    M_LABEL(1),             // label_1
    I_MOVI(R1, 32),         // R1 <- 32
    I_LD(R1, R1, 0),        // R1 <- RTC_SLOW_MEM[R1]
    I_MOVI(R2, 33),         // R2 <- 33
    I_LD(R2, R2, 0),        // R2 <- RTC_SLOW_MEM[R2]
    I_SUBR(R3, R1, R2),     // R3 <- R1 - R2
    I_ST(R3, R0, 0),        // R3 -> RTC_SLOW_MEM[R0 + 0]
    I_ADDI(R0, R0, 1),      // R0++
    M_BL(1, 64),            // if (R0 < 64) goto label_1
    I_HALT(),
};
RTC_SLOW_MEM[32] = 42;
RTC_SLOW_MEM[33] = 18;
size_t load_addr = 0;
size_t size = sizeof(program)/sizeof(ulp_insn_t);
ulp_process_macros_and_load(load_addr, program, &size);
ulp_run(load_addr);

API Reference

Functions

static inline uint32_t SOC_REG_TO_ULP_PERIPH_SEL(uint32_t reg)

Map SoC peripheral register to periph_sel field of RD_REG and WR_REG instructions.

Parameters

reg – peripheral register in RTC_CNTL_, RTC_IO_, SENS_, RTC_I2C peripherals.

Returns

periph_sel value for the peripheral to which this register belongs.

Unions

union ulp_insn
#include <ulp.h>

Instruction format structure.

All ULP instructions are 32 bit long. This union contains field layouts used by all of the supported instructions. This union also includes a special “macro” instruction layout. This is not a real instruction which can be executed by the CPU. It acts as a token which is removed from the program by the ulp_process_macros_and_load function.

These structures are not intended to be used directly. Preprocessor definitions provided below fill the fields of these structure with the right arguments.

Public Members

uint32_t cycles

Number of cycles to sleep

TBD, cycles used for measurement

uint32_t unused

Unused

uint32_t opcode

Opcode (OPCODE_DELAY)

Opcode (OPCODE_ST)

Opcode (OPCODE_LD)

Opcode (OPCODE_HALT)

Opcode (OPCODE_BRANCH)

Opcode (OPCODE_ALU)

Opcode (OPCODE_WR_REG)

Opcode (OPCODE_RD_REG)

Opcode (OPCODE_ADC)

Opcode (OPCODE_TSENS)

Opcode (OPCODE_I2C)

Opcode (OPCODE_END)

Opcode (OPCODE_MACRO)

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] delay

Format of DELAY instruction

uint32_t dreg

Register which contains data to store

Register where the data should be loaded to

Register which contains target PC, expressed in words (used if .reg == 1)

Destination register

Register where to store ADC result

Register where to store temperature measurement result

uint32_t sreg

Register which contains address in RTC memory (expressed in words)

Register with operand A

uint32_t label

Data label, 2-bit user defined unsigned value

Label number

uint32_t upper

0: write the low half-word; 1: write the high half-word

uint32_t wr_way

0: write the full-word; 1: with the label; 3: without the label

uint32_t unused1

Unused

uint32_t offset

Offset to add to sreg

Absolute value of target PC offset w.r.t. current PC, expressed in words

uint32_t unused2

Unused

uint32_t sub_opcode

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_ST)

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_BX)

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_B)

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_ALU_REG)

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_ALU_IMM)

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_ALU_CNT)

Sub opcode (SUB_OPCODE_WAKEUP)

SUB_OPCODE_MACRO_LABEL or SUB_OPCODE_MACRO_BRANCH

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] st

Format of ST instruction

uint32_t rd_upper

0: read the high half-word; 1: read the low half-word

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] ld

Format of LD instruction

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] halt

Format of HALT instruction

uint32_t addr

Target PC, expressed in words (used if .reg == 0)

Address within either RTC_CNTL, RTC_IO, or SARADC

uint32_t reg

Target PC in register (1) or immediate (0)

uint32_t type

Jump condition (BX_JUMP_TYPE_xxx)

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] bx

Format of BRANCH instruction (absolute address)

uint32_t imm

Immediate value to compare against

Immediate value of operand B

Immediate value

uint32_t cmp

Comparison to perform: B_CMP_L or B_CMP_GE

uint32_t sign

Sign of target PC offset: 0: positive, 1: negative

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] b

Format of BRANCH instruction (relative address)

uint32_t treg

Register with operand B

uint32_t sel

Operation to perform, one of ALU_SEL_xxx

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] alu_reg

Format of ALU instruction (both sources are registers)

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] alu_imm

Format of ALU instruction (one source is an immediate)

uint32_t unused3

Unused

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] alu_cnt

Format of ALU instruction with stage count register and an immediate

uint32_t periph_sel

Select peripheral: RTC_CNTL (0), RTC_IO(1), SARADC(2)

uint32_t data

8 bits of data to write

Data to read or write

uint32_t low

Low bit

uint32_t high

High bit

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] wr_reg

Format of WR_REG instruction

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] rd_reg

Format of RD_REG instruction

uint32_t mux

Select SARADC pad (mux + 1)

uint32_t sar_sel

Select SARADC0 (0) or SARADC1 (1)

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] adc

Format of ADC instruction

uint32_t wait_delay

Cycles to wait after measurement is done

uint32_t reserved

Reserved, set to 0

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] tsens

Format of TSENS instruction

uint32_t i2c_addr

I2C slave address

uint32_t low_bits

TBD

uint32_t high_bits

TBD

uint32_t i2c_sel

TBD, select reg_i2c_slave_address[7:0]

uint32_t rw

Write (1) or read (0)

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] i2c

Format of I2C instruction

uint32_t wakeup

Set to 1 to wake up chip

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] end

Format of END instruction with wakeup

struct ulp_insn::[anonymous] macro

Format of tokens used by LABEL and BRANCH macros

Macros

R0

general purpose register 0

R1

general purpose register 1

R2

general purpose register 2

R3

general purpose register 3

OPCODE_WR_REG

Instruction: write peripheral register (RTC_CNTL/RTC_IO/SARADC) (not implemented yet)

OPCODE_RD_REG

Instruction: read peripheral register (RTC_CNTL/RTC_IO/SARADC) (not implemented yet)

RD_REG_PERIPH_RTC_CNTL

Identifier of RTC_CNTL peripheral for RD_REG and WR_REG instructions

RD_REG_PERIPH_RTC_IO

Identifier of RTC_IO peripheral for RD_REG and WR_REG instructions

RD_REG_PERIPH_SENS

Identifier of SARADC peripheral for RD_REG and WR_REG instructions

RD_REG_PERIPH_RTC_I2C

Identifier of RTC_I2C peripheral for RD_REG and WR_REG instructions

OPCODE_I2C

Instruction: read/write I2C (not implemented yet)

OPCODE_DELAY

Instruction: delay (nop) for a given number of cycles

OPCODE_ADC

Instruction: SAR ADC measurement (not implemented yet)

OPCODE_ST

Instruction: store indirect to RTC memory

SUB_OPCODE_ST_AUTO

Automatic Storage Mode - Access continuous addresses. Use SUB_OPCODE_ST_OFFSET to configure the initial address before using this instruction.

SUB_OPCODE_ST_OFFSET

Automatic Storage Mode - Configure the initial address.

SUB_OPCODE_ST

Manual Storage Mode. Store 32 bits, 16 MSBs contain PC, 16 LSBs contain value from source register

OPCODE_ALU

Arithmetic instructions

SUB_OPCODE_ALU_REG

Arithmetic instruction, both source values are in register

SUB_OPCODE_ALU_IMM

Arithmetic instruction, one source value is an immediate

SUB_OPCODE_ALU_CNT

Arithmetic instruction between counter register and an immediate (not implemented yet)

ALU_SEL_ADD

Addition

ALU_SEL_SUB

Subtraction

ALU_SEL_AND

Logical AND

ALU_SEL_OR

Logical OR

ALU_SEL_MOV

Copy value (immediate to destination register or source register to destination register

ALU_SEL_LSH

Shift left by given number of bits

ALU_SEL_RSH

Shift right by given number of bits

ALU_SEL_STAGE_INC

Increment stage count register

ALU_SEL_STAGE_DEC

Decrement stage count register

ALU_SEL_STAGE_RST

Reset stage count register

OPCODE_BRANCH

Branch instructions

SUB_OPCODE_B

Branch to a relative offset

SUB_OPCODE_BX

Branch to absolute PC (immediate or in register)

SUB_OPCODE_BS

Branch to a relative offset by comparing the stage_cnt register

BX_JUMP_TYPE_DIRECT

Unconditional jump

BX_JUMP_TYPE_ZERO

Branch if last ALU result is zero

BX_JUMP_TYPE_OVF

Branch if last ALU operation caused and overflow

B_CMP_L

Branch if R0 is less than an immediate

B_CMP_G

Branch if R0 is greater than an immediate

B_CMP_E

Branch if R0 is equal to an immediate

BS_CMP_L

Branch if stage_cnt is less than an immediate

BS_CMP_GE

Branch if stage_cnt is greater than or equal to an immediate

BS_CMP_LE

Branch if stage_cnt is less than or equal to an immediate

OPCODE_END

Stop executing the program

SUB_OPCODE_END

Stop executing the program and optionally wake up the chip

SUB_OPCODE_SLEEP

Stop executing the program and run it again after selected interval

OPCODE_TSENS

Instruction: temperature sensor measurement (not implemented yet)

OPCODE_HALT

Halt the coprocessor

OPCODE_LD

Indirect load lower 16 bits from RTC memory

OPCODE_MACRO

Not a real opcode. Used to identify labels and branches in the program

SUB_OPCODE_MACRO_LABEL

Label macro

SUB_OPCODE_MACRO_BRANCH

Branch macro

SUB_OPCODE_MACRO_LABELPC

Label pointer macro

I_DELAY(cycles_)

Delay (nop) for a given number of cycles

I_HALT()

Halt the coprocessor.

This instruction halts the coprocessor, but keeps ULP timer active. As such, ULP program will be restarted again by timer. To stop the program and prevent the timer from restarting the program, use I_END(0) instruction.

I_WR_REG(reg, low_bit, high_bit, val)

Write literal value to a peripheral register

reg[high_bit : low_bit] = val This instruction can access RTC_CNTL_, RTC_IO_, SENS_, and RTC_I2C peripheral registers.

I_RD_REG(reg, low_bit, high_bit)

Read from peripheral register into R0

R0 = reg[high_bit : low_bit] This instruction can access RTC_CNTL_, RTC_IO_, SENS_, and RTC_I2C peripheral registers.

I_WR_REG_BIT(reg, shift, val)

Set or clear a bit in the peripheral register.

Sets bit (1 << shift) of register reg to value val. This instruction can access RTC_CNTL_, RTC_IO_, SENS_, and RTC_I2C peripheral registers.

I_WAKE()

Wake the SoC from deep sleep.

This instruction initiates wake up from deep sleep. Use esp_deep_sleep_enable_ulp_wakeup to enable deep sleep wakeup triggered by the ULP before going into deep sleep. Note that ULP program will still keep running until the I_HALT instruction, and it will still be restarted by timer at regular intervals, even when the SoC is woken up.

To stop the ULP program, use I_HALT instruction.

To disable the timer which start ULP program, use I_END() instruction. I_END instruction clears the RTC_CNTL_ULP_CP_SLP_TIMER_EN_S bit of RTC_CNTL_ULP_CP_TIMER_REG register, which controls the ULP timer.

I_END()

Stop ULP program timer.

This is a convenience macro which disables the ULP program timer. Once this instruction is used, ULP program will not be restarted anymore until ulp_run function is called.

ULP program will continue running after this instruction. To stop the currently running program, use I_HALT().

I_TSENS(reg_dest, delay)

Perform temperature sensor measurement and store it into reg_dest.

Delay can be set between 1 and ((1 << 14) - 1). Higher values give higher measurement resolution.

I_ADC(reg_dest, adc_idx, pad_idx)

Perform ADC measurement and store result in reg_dest.

adc_idx selects ADC (0 or 1). pad_idx selects ADC pad (0 - 7).

I_ST_MANUAL(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_, label_, upper_, wr_way_)

Store lower half-word, upper half-word or full-word data from register reg_val into RTC memory address.

This instruction can be used to write data to discontinuous addresses in the RTC_SLOW_MEM. The value is written to an offset calculated by adding the value of reg_addr register and offset_ field (this offset is expressed in 32-bit words). The storage method is dictated by the wr_way and upper field settings as summarized in the following table:

* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* | wr_way | upper |                                        data                                            |          operation         |
* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |       |                                                                                        | Write full-word, including |
* |   0    |   X   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:0} = {insn_PC[10:0], 3’b0, label_[1:0], reg_val[15:0]} | the PC and the data        |
* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |       |                                                                                        | Store the data with label  |
* |   1    |   0   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{15:0} = {label_[1:0], reg_val[13:0]}                      | in the low half-word       |
* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |       |                                                                                        | Store the data with label  |
* |   1    |   1   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:16} = {label_[1:0], reg_val[13:0]}                     | in the high half-word      |
* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |       |                                                                                        | Store the data without     |
* |   3    |   0   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{15:0} = reg_val[15:0]                                     | label in the low half-word |
* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |       |                                                                                        | Store the data without     |
* |   3    |   1   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:16} = reg_val[15:0]                                    | label in the high half-word|
* |--------|-------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
*

SUB_OPCODE_ST = manual_en:1, offset_set:0, wr_auto:0

I_ST(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_)

Store value from register reg_val into RTC memory.

I_ST() instruction provides backward compatibility for code written for esp32 to be run on esp32s2. This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_MANUAL() instruction with label = 0, upper = 0 and wr_way = 3.

I_STL(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_)

Store value from register reg_val to lower 16 bits of the RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_MANUAL() instruction with label = 0, upper = 0 and wr_way = 3.

I_STH(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_)

Store value from register reg_val to upper 16 bits of the RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_MANUAL() instruction with label = 0, upper = 1 and wr_way = 3.

I_ST32(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_, label_)

Store value from register reg_val to full 32 bit word of the RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_MANUAL() instruction with wr_way = 0.

I_STL_LABEL(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_, label_)

Store value from register reg_val with label to lower 16 bits of RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_MANUAL() instruction with label = label_, upper = 0 and wr_way = 1.

I_STH_LABEL(reg_val, reg_addr, offset_, label_)

Store value from register reg_val with label to upper 16 bits of RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_MANUAL() instruction with label = label_, upper = 1 and wr_way = 1.

I_ST_AUTO(reg_val, reg_addr, label_, wr_way_)

Store lower half-word, upper half-word or full-word data from register reg_val into RTC memory address with auto-increment of the offset value.

This instruction can be used to write data to continuous addresses in the RTC_SLOW_MEM. The initial address must be set using the SUB_OPCODE_ST_OFFSET instruction before the auto store instruction is called. The data written to the RTC memory address could be written to the full 32 bit word or to the lower half-word or the upper half-word. The storage method is dictated by the wr_way field and the number of times the SUB_OPCODE_ST_AUTO instruction is called. write_cnt indicates the later. The following table summarizes the storage method:

* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* | wr_way | write_cnt |                                        data                                            |          operation         |
* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |           |                                                                                        | Write full-word, including |
* |   0    |     X     | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:0} = {insn_PC[10:0], 3’b0, label_[1:0], reg_val[15:0]} | the PC and the data        |
* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |           |                                                                                        | Store the data with label  |
* |   1    |    odd    | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{15:0} = {label_[1:0], reg_val[13:0]}                      | in the low half-word       |
* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |           |                                                                                        | Store the data with label  |
* |   1    |    even   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:16} = {label_[1:0], reg_val[13:0]}                     | in the high half-word      |
* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |           |                                                                                        | Store the data without     |
* |   3    |    odd    | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{15:0} = reg_val[15:0]                                     | label in the low half-word |
* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
* |        |           |                                                                                        | Store the data without     |
* |   3    |    even   | RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:16} = reg_val[15:0]                                    | label in the high half-word|
* |--------|-----------|----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------|
*

The initial address offset is incremented after each store operation as follows:

  • When a full-word is written, the offset is automatically incremented by 1 after each SUB_OPCODE_ST_AUTO operation.

  • When a half-word is written (lower half-word first), the offset is automatically incremented by 1 after two SUB_OPCODE_ST_AUTO operations.

    SUB_OPCODE_ST_AUTO = manual_en:0, offset_set:0, wr_auto:1

I_STO(offset_)

Set the initial address offset for auto-store operation

This instruction sets the initial address of the RTC_SLOW_MEM to be used by the auto-store operation. The offset is incremented automatically. Refer I_ST_AUTO() for detailed explaination.

SUB_OPCODE_ST_OFFSET = manual_en:0, offset_set:1, wr_auto:1

I_STI(reg_val, reg_addr)

Store value from register reg_val to 32 bit word of the RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_AUTO() instruction with label = 0 and wr_way = 3. The data in reg_val will be either written to the lower half-word or the upper half-word of the RTC memory address depending on the count of the number of times the I_STI() instruction is called. The initial offset is automatically incremented with I_STI() is called twice. Refer I_ST_AUTO() for detailed explaination.

I_STI_LABEL(reg_val, reg_addr, label_)

Store value from register reg_val with label to 32 bit word of the RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_AUTO() instruction with label = label_ and wr_way = 1. The data in reg_val will be either written to the lower half-word or the upper half-word of the RTC memory address depending on the count of the number of times the I_STI_LABEL() instruction is called. The initial offset is automatically incremented with I_STI_LABEL() is called twice. Refer I_ST_AUTO() for detailed explaination.

I_STI32(reg_val, reg_addr, label_)

Store value from register reg_val to full 32 bit word of the RTC memory address.

This instruction is equivalent to calling I_ST_AUTO() instruction with label = label_ and wr_way = 0. The data in reg_val will be written to the RTC memory address along with the label and the PC. The initial offset is automatically incremented each time the I_STI32() instruction is called. Refer I_ST_AUTO() for detailed explaination.

I_LD_MANUAL(reg_dest, reg_addr, offset_, rd_upper_)

Load lower half-word, upper half-word or full-word data from RTC memory address into the register reg_dest.

This instruction reads the lower half-word or upper half-word of the RTC memory address depending on the value of rd_upper_. The following table summarizes the loading method:

* |----------|------------------------------------------------------|-------------------------|
* | rd_upper |                       data                           |        operation        |
* |----------|------------------------------------------------------|-------------------------|
* |          |                                                      | Read lower half-word of |
* |    0     | reg_dest{15:0} = RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{31:16} | the memory              |
* |----------|------------------------------------------------------|-------------------------|
* |          |                                                      | Read upper half-word of |
* |    1     | reg_dest{15:0} = RTC_SLOW_MEM[addr + offset_]{15:0}  | the memory              |
* |----------|------------------------------------------------------|-------------------------|
*

I_LD(reg_dest, reg_addr, offset_)

Load lower 16 bits value from RTC memory into reg_dest register.

Loads 16 LSBs (rd_upper = 1) from RTC memory word given by the sum of value in reg_addr and value of offset_. I_LD() instruction provides backward compatibility for code written for esp32 to be run on esp32s2.

I_LDL(reg_dest, reg_addr, offset_)

Load lower 16 bits value from RTC memory into reg_dest register.

I_LDL() instruction and I_LD() instruction can be used interchangably.

I_LDH(reg_dest, reg_addr, offset_)

Load upper 16 bits value from RTC memory into reg_dest register.

Loads 16 MSBs (rd_upper = 0) from RTC memory word given by the sum of value in reg_addr and value of offset_.

I_BL(pc_offset, imm_value)

Branch relative if R0 register less than the immediate value.

pc_offset is expressed in words, and can be from -127 to 127 imm_value is a 16-bit value to compare R0 against

I_BG(pc_offset, imm_value)

Branch relative if R0 register greater than the immediate value.

pc_offset is expressed in words, and can be from -127 to 127 imm_value is a 16-bit value to compare R0 against

I_BE(pc_offset, imm_value)

Branch relative if R0 register is equal to the immediate value.

pc_offset is expressed in words, and can be from -127 to 127 imm_value is a 16-bit value to compare R0 against

I_BXR(reg_pc)

Unconditional branch to absolute PC, address in register.

reg_pc is the register which contains address to jump to. Address is expressed in 32-bit words.

I_BXI(imm_pc)

Unconditional branch to absolute PC, immediate address.

Address imm_pc is expressed in 32-bit words.

I_BXZR(reg_pc)

Branch to absolute PC if ALU result is zero, address in register.

reg_pc is the register which contains address to jump to. Address is expressed in 32-bit words.

I_BXZI(imm_pc)

Branch to absolute PC if ALU result is zero, immediate address.

Address imm_pc is expressed in 32-bit words.

I_BXFR(reg_pc)

Branch to absolute PC if ALU overflow, address in register

reg_pc is the register which contains address to jump to. Address is expressed in 32-bit words.

I_BXFI(imm_pc)

Branch to absolute PC if ALU overflow, immediate address

Address imm_pc is expressed in 32-bit words.

I_BSLE(pc_offset, imm_value)

Branch relative if stage_cnt is less than or equal to the immediate value.

pc_offset is expressed in words, and can be from -127 to 127 imm_value is a 16-bit value to compare R0 against

I_BSGE(pc_offset, imm_value)

Branch relative if stage_cnt register is greater than or equal to the immediate value.

pc_offset is expressed in words, and can be from -127 to 127 imm_value is a 16-bit value to compare R0 against

I_BSL(pc_offset, imm_value)

Branch relative if stage_cnt register is less than the immediate value.

pc_offset is expressed in words, and can be from -127 to 127 imm_value is a 16-bit value to compare R0 against

I_ADDR(reg_dest, reg_src1, reg_src2)

Addition: dest = src1 + src2

I_SUBR(reg_dest, reg_src1, reg_src2)

Subtraction: dest = src1 - src2

I_ANDR(reg_dest, reg_src1, reg_src2)

Logical AND: dest = src1 & src2

I_ORR(reg_dest, reg_src1, reg_src2)

Logical OR: dest = src1 | src2

I_MOVR(reg_dest, reg_src)

Copy: dest = src

I_LSHR(reg_dest, reg_src, reg_shift)

Logical shift left: dest = src << shift

I_RSHR(reg_dest, reg_src, reg_shift)

Logical shift right: dest = src >> shift

I_ADDI(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Add register and an immediate value: dest = src1 + imm

I_SUBI(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Subtract register and an immediate value: dest = src - imm

I_ANDI(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Logical AND register and an immediate value: dest = src & imm

I_ORI(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Logical OR register and an immediate value: dest = src | imm

I_MOVI(reg_dest, imm_)

Copy an immediate value into register: dest = imm

I_LSHI(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Logical shift left register value by an immediate: dest = src << imm

I_RSHI(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Logical shift right register value by an immediate: dest = val >> imm

I_STAGE_INC(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Increment stage_cnt register by an immediate: stage_cnt = stage_cnt + imm

I_STAGE_DEC(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Decrement stage_cnt register by an immediate: stage_cnt = stage_cnt - imm

I_STAGE_RST(reg_dest, reg_src, imm_)

Reset stage_cnt register by an immediate: stage_cnt = 0

M_LABEL(label_num)

Define a label with number label_num.

This is a macro which doesn’t generate a real instruction. The token generated by this macro is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function. Label defined using this macro can be used in branch macros defined below.

M_BRANCH(label_num)

Token macro used by M_B and M_BX macros. Not to be used directly.

M_BL(label_num, imm_value)

Macro: branch to label label_num if R0 is less than immediate value.

This macro generates two ulp_insn_t values separated by a comma, and should be used when defining contents of ulp_insn_t arrays. First value is not a real instruction; it is a token which is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function.

M_BG(label_num, imm_value)

Macro: branch to label label_num if R0 is greater than immediate value

This macro generates two ulp_insn_t values separated by a comma, and should be used when defining contents of ulp_insn_t arrays. First value is not a real instruction; it is a token which is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function.

M_BE(label_num, imm_value)

Macro: branch to label label_num if R0 equal to the immediate value

This macro generates two ulp_insn_t values separated by a comma, and should be used when defining contents of ulp_insn_t arrays. First value is not a real instruction; it is a token which is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function.

M_BX(label_num)

Macro: unconditional branch to label

This macro generates two ulp_insn_t values separated by a comma, and should be used when defining contents of ulp_insn_t arrays. First value is not a real instruction; it is a token which is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function.

M_BXZ(label_num)

Macro: branch to label if ALU result is zero

This macro generates two ulp_insn_t values separated by a comma, and should be used when defining contents of ulp_insn_t arrays. First value is not a real instruction; it is a token which is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function.

M_BXF(label_num)

Macro: branch to label if ALU overflow

This macro generates two ulp_insn_t values separated by a comma, and should be used when defining contents of ulp_insn_t arrays. First value is not a real instruction; it is a token which is removed by ulp_process_macros_and_load function.